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Le fonti rinnovabili

Le fonti rinnovabili sono ormai una necessità innegabile del nostro sistema energetico. La progressiva erosione dei giacimenti petroliferi e degli altri combustibili fossili, da un lato, e il progressivo aumento dei costi dell’energia fanno delle fonti rinnovabili una irrinunciabile strada da percorrere dal punto di vista economico ed energetico.
Tra la molteplicità di soluzione che offre il mercato la produzione di energia elettrica mediante conversione fotovoltaica è quella che allo stato attuale sta conoscendo la maggiore espansione.
Il sistema fotovoltaico, detto in maniera molto semplice, si basa su un processo chimico di trasferimento di elettroni di alcuni materiali esposti alla radiazione solare. I pannelli fotovoltaici, qualche tempo fa sconosciuti alla maggioranza della popolazione, sono diventati oggetti familiari: se ne vedono sugli autogrill su molti tetti, specie da Roma in su, sui terreni e soprattutto appaiono molto più spesso sui media.
Questa espansione è dovuta ad una caratteristica peculiare di questa particolare modalità di sfruttamento delle fonti energetiche rinnovabili. Il fotovoltaico, infatti, presenta notevoli vantaggi rispetto ad altre tecnologie: non presenta parti in movimento e la manutenzione è ridotta al minimo, ha una maggiore possibilità di applicazione. Il sole c’è sempre e dovunque (basti solo pensare che senza sole non ci sarebbe vita sulla terra) e nonostante la sua aleatorietà statistica, la sua presenza (e dunque la produzione dell’impianto) è abbastanza sicura per un discreto numero di ore all’anno, a differenza dell’eolico che ha bisogno di specifiche caratteristiche dei siti per poter essere conveniente. Queste ed altre caratteristiche sono alla base del boom che questo settore ha conosciuto durante l’ultimo anno e mezzo. Il numero crescente di installazioni che si è avuto nell’ultimo periodo è dovuto, dal punto di vista economico, al fatto che il nuovo conto energia, emanato nel 2007, non poneva limiti di taglia per gli impianti ammessi agli incentivi. Questo ha fatto sì che anche la grande impresa abbia deciso di investire in questi impianti. Sono stati realizzati molti impianti di grosse dimensioni e ciò ha contribuito a creare quelle economie di scala che il decreto aveva l’obiettivo di mettere in moto per incentivare lo sviluppo industriale di questa tecnologia, che a sua volta ha permesso di abbattere i prezzi di questi sistemi. Questo meccanismo del conto energia (che è finanziato con l’aliquota della bolletta dell’energia elettrica per lo sviluppo delle energie rinnovabili) ha premiato tutti i soggetti coinvolti: lo stato ha avuto grossi introiti dovuti al fatturato dei soggetti coinvolti nel settore, che a loro volta hanno avuto un grosso volume di affari; chi ha investito nel fotovoltaico ha ricavato un buon introito economico e l’intera popolazione beneficerà del minore inquinamento dovuto alla produzione di energia generato dall’introduzione di questa tecnologia pulita. Nel 2010 il governo dovrà rinnovare il conto energia ed estendere la possibilità di incentivi oltre la soglia fissata attualmente per consentire la crescita di un settore che può garantire ancora sviluppo. Vantaggi economici agli operatori del settore e a chi decide di investire i questo ambito, dall’utente domestico, che si garantisce una fornitura praticamente gratuita di energia (per un periodo di circa 30 anni) sommata agli incentivi che sono economicamente molto convenienti (per 20 anni), al grande investitore che ricava un notevole profitto economico. Come sempre un settore in forte crescita e condizionato da forti interessi economici è popolato da soggetti che si improvvisano esperti e che potrebbero condurre l’utente interessato verso scelte sbagliate o lucrare eccessivamente sulle sue spalle; il fotovoltaico non fa eccezione in questo e in particolar modo per i piccoli investitori. È importante, dunque, se c’è interesse ad investire in questo ambito, affidarsi a tecnici qualificati e disinteressati, che guidino l’utente in un percorso fatto da scelte condivise e di maggiore utilità per l’utente stesso. [Ing. Marco Scarpellino]


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